What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the
Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial
government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717.
The territories of the Viceroyalty – New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela,
and Quito – gained their independence...
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled
with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed
for the development of one of the world’s great civilizations. A
unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled
in Egypt for the next three millennia. The...
Salvador El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from
the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which
cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the
government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for
military and political reforms. Location – Central America,...
Guinea Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of
Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus
five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African
continent. President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the
country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although...
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The UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian
federation in 1952. Ethiopia’s full annexation of Eritrea as a province
10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that
ended in 1991with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces.
Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum.
ISAIAS Afworki has been...
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia
attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in
1940 – an action never recognized by the US – it regained its freedom
in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian
troops left in 1994, Estonia has...
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy
maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a
short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta,
the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and
established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings,
wide-scale drought, and...