In 1895, military defeat forced China’s Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to
Japan. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist control after World War
II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million
Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1947
constitution drawn up for all of China. Beginning...
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but
Russia’s hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of
1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not
fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was
transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed...
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s,
Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964.
One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held
in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and
popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995,...
A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known
as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never
to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in
1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during
World War II, Thailand became a...
(East Timor) The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in
the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing
with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in
which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan
occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to...
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed
as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four
decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the
early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA,
whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has...
Originally settled by Polynesian emigrants from surrounding island
groups, the Tokelau Islands were made a British protectorate in 1889.
They were transferred to New Zealand administration in 1925. Referenda
held in 2006 and 2007 to change the status of the islands from that of
a New Zealand territory to one of free association...
Tonga – unique among Pacific nations – never completely lost its
indigenous governance. The archipelagos of “The Friendly Islands” were
united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional
monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from
the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970....
and Tobago First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under
British control in the early 19th century. The islands’ sugar industry
was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was
replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between
1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well...
Read more →
da Cunha Saint Helena is a British Overseas Territory consisting of
Saint Helena and Ascension Islands, and the island group of Tristan da
Cunha. Saint Helena: Uninhabited when first discovered by the
Portuguese in 1502, Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during
the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of...
Read more →
Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a
French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation
for independence in the decades following World War I was finally
successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent
state in 1956. The country’s first president, Habib BOURGUIBA,...
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the
defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later
honored with the title Ataturk or “Father of the Turks.” Under his
authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social,
legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an...
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the
crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in
antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander
the Great, Muslim crusaders, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and
eventually the Russians. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary)
was one of the...
Read more →
and Caicos Islands The islands were part of the UK’s Jamaican colony
until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony
upon Jamaica’s independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw
affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands
received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was
Read more →
In 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of the Gilbert
and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote
for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The
following year, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony
of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000, Tuvalu...